Including habitat loss and degradation; species loss, including reductions in population, species distribution, traits, and diversity between species and of ecosystems.
The Economics of Biodiversity: The Dasgupta Review
This global review on the economics of biodiversity calls for changes in how we think, act, and measure economic success in order to protect and enhance our prosperity and the natural world. The review thoroughly explains the foundation of the biodiversity crisis, and includes key recommendations for reversing the human-caused decline in biodiversity, such as expanding and improvement of protected areas; increased investment into nature-based solutions; the creation or improvement of policies to eliminate damaging consumption of natural assets; the incorporation of natural capital accounting; and proper valuation of ecosystem services into all national accounting systems. This comprehensive deep-dive is a key reference point for sustainability professionals that want to account for nature in decision-making.
Living Planet Index
The WWF's Living Planet Index (LPI) is a measure of the state of the world's biological diversity based on population trends within the animal kingdom. Adopted by the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD), this resource provides data a variety of sources for thousands of species. Whether you are evaluating current or future potential strategic risks from biodiversity decline, or simply seeking to build your understanding of the state of biodiversity, this resource is a good starting point to build your knowledge of systemic pressures and threats to biodiversity, socioecological trends, and other insights on how "conservation intervention" can promote species recovery.
Biodiversity Risk Filter
Joining the Water Risk Filter in WWF's Risk Filter Suite, the Biodiversity Risk Filter was created to help you understand, explore, assess, and respond to biodiversity risks across your operations, value chains, and investments. This free tool uses 50 annually-updated data layers that collectively provide a global, holistic picture of biodiversity-related risk. This includes information on species and ecosystems, protected areas, and the most important pressures on biodiversity such as deforestation, habitat destruction, pollution, and land use change.
A Biodiversity Guide for Business
This report from WWF can help you to identify, assess, and address biodiversity risks and opportunities that come from conserving, using, and restoring biodiversity in a sustainable way. It highlights the impact that industries such as agriculture, extractives, land development, and energy production have on biodiversity, as well as their dependencies on robust and resilient biodiversity and ecosystems. The guide also provides a biodiversity stewardship approach to help you get started.
What Is The Mitigation & Conservation Hierarchy?
This framework from the Conservation Hierarchy outlines four steps (refrain, reduce, restore, and renew) that can be implemented to help businesses advance nature-positive outcomes. The steps can be implemented via two pathways: the mitigation hierarchy, for mitigating future negative impacts, and the conservation hierarchy, for delivering additional conservation potential. The framework is based on the well-established 'mitigation hierarchy' for addressing impacts on biodiversity, and moves beyond it by recognising the need to address past, indirect, and diffuse negative impacts on biodiversity and by combining impact mitigation and proactive conservation. Understanding and implementing this framework is an important starting point for any business that is committed to addressing its direct and indirect impact on nature.
Business for Nature
Business for Nature is a global coalition that brings together businesses and conservation organisations to advance corporate actions and government policies that reverse nature loss. They have outlined four high-level business actions that your business can take to signal that it is making meaningful contributions to creating a nature-positive world. They also provide case studies; resources to support nature-related advocacy and communications; and summaries of new and relevant frameworks, conventions, agreements, and more. Business for Nature is a good starting point for leaders and sustainability professionals who want to better acquaint themselves with nature-related policy trends, corporate actions, and talking points.
Nature Risk Rising: Why the Crisis Engulfing Nature Matters for Business and the Economy
This report, the first in the World Economic Forum's 'New Nature Economy' report series, will help you to better understand the dependency and impact of business on nature. The report uses a simple three-stage breakdown: 1) acknowledging and explaining the crisis of biodiversity decline, 2) identifying material risks, and 3) managing material risks. This report explores the scale and urgency of the biodiversity decline emergency and the drivers of nature loss, and provides a helpful fit-for-purpose framework for managing nature-based risks.
Healthy ecosystem metric framework: biodiversity impact
A growing number of companies have expressed the need for clear, standardised 'healthy ecosystem' metrics to demonstrate their progress towards reducing their impact on nature. To help business leaders and sustainability change agents take action on ecosystem decline, the Cambridge Institute for Sustainability Learning has developed a framework that provides a credible, science-based starting point for measuring ecosystem impacts from a contextual perspective. The metric provided is based on the impact of a company upon the quality and quantity of biodiversity, soil, and water, with clear information on how the metric was conceived and how it could be used.
Integrated Biodiversity Assessment Tool
This tool from the IBAT Alliance will improve your decision-making and access to markets by growing your understanding of local, national, and regional biodiversity risks and opportunities. IBAT provides comprehensive risk reports with data from the World Database on Protected Areas, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, and the World Database of Key Biodiversity Areas; combined, this information provides a comprehensive risk 'map' that will help you to align with international best practices. Although IBAT has a sliding subscription scale, there is an introductory option with free access to visual data maps and country profiles, as well as pay-as-you-go reports.
Global biodiversity is in crisis, but how bad is it? It’s complicated
This article is a good primer on the pace and severity of biodiversity decline and the impacts this decline is having on our world. The article explains the concept of a global threshold for biodiversity loss; the concept and importance of genetic diversity; the realities of regime shifts; and the importance of radical action to preserve the remaining integrity of our biosphere.
Raising the Bar on Corporate Sustainability Reporting to Meet Ecological Challenges Globally
This global, cross-sector report by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) assesses the environmental dimension of sustainability reporting and provides recommendations to make environmental reporting relevant to all stakeholders. It analyses the most common and crucial environmental disclosure items and provides practical recommendations for companies and other reporting organisations on how these items should be measured and reported, supported with best-practice examples. It also identifies aspects of reporting where companies need to improve in order to align with the UN's 2030 development agenda, such as applying an understanding of ecological and social thresholds.
Accounting for Natural Climate Solutions Guidance
Natural climate solutions have been recognised as key levers in mitigating the negative impacts of climate change, with ~12% of global impacts from GHG emissions coming from land use and land-use changes (LULUC). To support you in calculating, accounting for, and reporting on LULUC-generated GHG emissions, the Accounting for Natural Climate Solutions Guidance from Quantis delivers a robust methodology to embed land-related emissions in corporate and product footprints, which can be used for setting science-based climate targets. Additionally, the supporting Annex document provides detailed information on the scope of the proposed methodology, including technical instructions, context, debated challenges, and limitations, as well as references.
A Cross-Sector Guide for Implementing the Mitigation Hierarchy
This guide from the Cross Sector Biodiversity Initiative and The Biodiversity Consultancy clearly defines the four steps of the mitigation hierarchy (avoid, minimize, restore and offset) and their application with regard to managing biodiversity throughout the life cycle of an extractive project. The guide offers practical measures for predicting and verifying biodiversity conservation outcomes over time, and provides insights into recording and comparing mitigation-related costs. If you are seeking to learn about the mitigation hierarchy and to understand your options for mitigating impacts from a contextual perspective, this guide is an excellent starting point.
No net loss and net positive impact approaches to biodiversity
The objective of this report from the IUCN is to learn from the experiences of the extractive and infrastructural sectors and to propose an organizing framework for applying No Net Loss (NNL) & Net Positive Impact (NPI) approaches in other business sectors. Although written with the agriculture and forestry sectors in mind, this report will help you to understand the mitigation heirarchy and the ambiguity around NNL and NPI definitions and impact goals. The document also provides a framework for applying a Net Positive Impact approach, with step-by-step scenario schematics (including visuals) that will help you to better understand the applicability of the mitigation hierarchy to your organization's work.
Biodiversity Offsets: A User Guide
The mitigation hierarchy holds that avoiding, minimizing, rectifying, and reducing impacts to the natural environment are all preferable to offsetting, but there are situations where biodiversity offsets are a necessity. This guide from the Convention on Biological Diversity will help you understand when to consider using offsets, and explains the core principles and limits of offsetting.
Biodiversity: where the world is making progress – and where it’s not
This short article is a good starting point for understanding the status of biodiversity and global efforts to halt and reverse biodiversity decline. It provides a high-level summary of successes and shortcomings, and may help business leaders otherwise unfamiliar with the issue to learn of the forces driving biodiversity decline and the actions required by government and industry to effect positive change.
Setting robust biodiversity goals
The global biodiversity framework (GBF) that is being developed under the Convention on Biological Diversity intends to ensure that by 2050 humanity is 'living in harmony with nature'. However, the authors of this paper argue that the draft goals and targets - as they are currently articulated - do not specify explicit, measurable goals that can credibly achieve this outcome. This paper makes the case for distinct outcome goals for species, ecosystems, and genetic diversity, and it outlines seven general principles to underpin smart and effective net outcome goal-setting. These principles can help you to better understand the benefits and shortcomings of broad "net outcome" goals (such as "no net loss") and can support your process for creating and implementing credible biodiversity goals.
A Practical Guide to Insetting
Insetting refers to a company offsetting its emissions through projects that avoid, reduce, or sequester carbon within its own value chain. It is an opportunity for businesses to link emissions and carbon sequestration to their sourcing landscapes. This guide from the International Platform for Insetting shares insights and provides recommendations that will help you to transform your supply chain for a resilient, regenerative, net zero carbon future that values and protects nature. The guide was created specifically for insetting practitioners and stakeholders that want to learn more about the concept, and it highlights lessons and opportunities for realising the full potential of insetting.
Biodiversity Loss and Land Degradation: An Overview of the Financial Materiality
This brief from CISL explains biodiversity loss and land degradation, why they matter, the financial implications of such decline, and methods for quantification. This brief may be a helpful primer for executives and board members who want to better understand how to prioritise these issues and to determine the cost of inaction.
The Accountability Framework
This framework from the Accountability Framework initiative (AFi) features twelve core principles for building, strengthening, and supporting ethical supply chains. These principles serve as a guide for companies and others in setting, implementing, monitoring, and reporting on effective goals and commitments on deforestation, ecosystem conversion, and human rights in ethical supply chains. AFi has also developed operational guidance to help you put the core principles into practice; a self-assessment to help you with benchmarking your goals, policies, and practices against the framework; and other related tools and guides.
Deforestation Monitoring and Response Framework
The Forest Positive Coalition has created a framework to proactively monitor and address deforestation and peat non-compliances. The framework is a living document, and it aims to create a more efficient and effective approach for dealing with non-compliance with 'No Deforestation or Peat Development' commitments. It has two sections: guidance on minimum requirements for monitoring, and a response framework that clarifies roles and responsibilities across the supply chain.
Although the scope of the monitoring is for palm oil only, the learning outcomes will be shared for other commodities across the Forest Positive Coalition members.
Global Forest Watch
This online platform provides data and tools for monitoring forests, and will help you to access near real-time information about where and how forests are changing around the world. The maps features allow you to visualise and analyse historical trends in tree cover loss and gain since 2000, view land cover, and toggle for various country-specific climate and biodiversity factors. This tool may be particularly helpful to sustainability, oversight, and procurement professionals who are responsible for monitoring illegal deforestation, defending land and resources, and ensuring commodities are sustainably sourced.
Why Preserving Forest Integrity Is As Vital As Preventing Deforestation
This quick read from the World Resources Institute can help you to understand the importance of forest integrity, which refers to the health of standing forests, including their ability to store carbon and protect biodiversity. This article explains the concept of forest integrity; identifies the greatest threats to forest integrity; explains where forest integrity is most at risk; and identifies actions required to protect high-integrity forests and restore other forests.
Beyond 'Business as Usual': Biodiversity Targets and Finance
This report from the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the Natural Capital Finance Alliance (NCFA) was created to highlight the need for banks, insurers, and investors to set strong biodiversity targets. This resource can help you to understand why nature is important to financial institutions; which sectors have the greatest impact and dependence on biodiversity; and how to use this knowledge to inform biodiversity target-setting.
From Commitments to Action at Scale: Critical steps to achieve deforestation-free supply chains
The CDP is a not-for-profit charity that runs the global disclosure system for investors, companies, cities, states, and regions to manage their environmental impacts. In addition to their work on carbon and climate change, they have created a range of resources to help your company take action on deforestation. Their Global Forests Report is a good resource for helping change agents understand the scale, scope, and rigour of actions required to tackle deforestation so that they can better summarise and translate these findings for executives and boards. Building off previous CDP and Accountability Framework Initiative (AFi) analysis, this report highlights areas of progress and gaps in performance and provides insights that can help your company learn from the progress of industry peers. Each section of the report summarizes key elements of the Accountability Framework’s Core Principles and guidance followed by corresponding analysis of company performance using CDP data.
The IPBES Assessment Report on the Sustainable Use of Wild Species
Billions of people benefit daily from the use of wild species for food, energy, materials, medicine, recreation, inspiration, and more. 50,000 wild species meet the needs of billions of people worldwide, and more than 10,000 wild species are directly harvested for food. This report by the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) can help you to understand how the global biodiversity crisis threatens the contributions of these species to humanity, and provides insights, analysis, and tools to establish more sustainable use of wild species of plants, animals, fungi and algae around the world.
This report identifies five broad categories of ‘practices’ in the use of wild species: fishing; gathering; logging; terrestrial animal harvesting (including hunting); and non-extractive practices, such as observing. For each practice, it then examines specific ‘uses’ for these materials; identifies trends and drivers of change; explores policies, practices, and tools to effect positive change; and examines a range of possible future scenarios for the use of wild species.
Nature in the balance: What companies can do to restore natural capital
This resource can help you to better understand the scope and scale of actions that corporations must take to protect, manage, and restore nature, thereby preserving Earth as a "safe operating space for humanity." The report outlines the case for a nature-positive approach to business; outlines the actions required to live within the planetary boundaries, and the outcomes it would achieve; and identifies key opportunities that specific industries must seize to reduce their impacts on nature. It also provides a four-step roadmap for action, including credible investments, initiatives, and innovations that companies can pursue to achieve nature-positive commitments.
Biodiversity Risk: Legal Implications for Companies and their Directors
This report from the Commonwealth Climate and Law Institute (CCLI) can help directors, investors, accountants, procurement professionals, and legal professionals to assess biodiversity dependencies and impacts and to better embed these factors into strategy and disclosure processes. The report explains how leaders may face the risk of liability for a failure to consider biodiversity risks in governance and disclosure, and provides a jurisdictional spotlight on duties of care.
The Intelligent Forest
This excerpt from Suzanne Simard's book Finding the Mother Tree is a deeply moving and personal piece that dispels the notion of ecosystems as inert and predictable, and highlights their similarities with human societies. She casts light on a range of thought-provoking parallels, such as their dependence on (and corresponding growth and resilience from) relationships. This resource will help you to understand the dynamic nature of systems, and how their constituent parts respond to one another and their surroundings through adaptive and evolutionary change
Why are Tropical Forests Being Lost, and How to Protect Them
This resource is a good primer on global forest loss trends; signs of progress against deforestation; and the most effective actions for ending deforestation by 2030 - particularly political and financial levers.
The State of the World's Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture
This comprehensive guide from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations presents the first global assessment of biodiversity for food and agriculture worldwide. The report draws on information from 91 country reports to provide a description of the roles and importance of biodiversity for food and agriculture, the drivers of change affecting it, and its current status and trends. It describes the state of efforts to promote the sustainable use and conservation of biodiversity for food and agriculture, including through the development of supporting policies, legal frameworks, institutions and capacities. It also explains the needs and challenges of future management of biodiversity for food and agriculture. This resource is an excellent starting point for change agents to build their awareness and understanding of the vital importance of biodiversity to global food systems.
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